Tharu tribes of Lakhimpur-Kheri district in Uttar Pradesh developed and practiced different types of fishing methods since time immemorial. Information was collected by direct viewing and conversation to local tharu tribal fishermen with an intensive survey during January to November, 2013 in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) mode. Indigenous traditional fishing with Hulcar, Taapar, Thathi, Dhimari and Helka has become sustainable way of harvesting fishes without over-exploitation of fishery resources. Over-exploitation of the fishery resources mainly Bellamya bengalensis by hand picking fishing needs to be controlled. Fishing with poison in the streams of the region is not common but still prevalent; although it is banned in all parts of the world as well in India. The indigenous fishing methods provides the conservation and efficient utilization of aquatic resources, which are eco-friendly, less capital intensive, sustainable and gives subsistence to the many small scale tribal population of the region.